Launched in 2012, YourStory's Book Review section features over 250 titles on creativity, innovation, entrepreneurship, and digital transformation. See also our related columns The Turning Point, Techie Tuesdays, and Storybites.

Transformations in the worlds of money and technology are converging, as described in the book by Sanjay Phadke, Fintech Future: The Digital DNA of Finance.

The material is spread across 17 chapters, and makes for an informative read for beginners new to this field. However, the choice of font could do with considerable improvement, and there are several typos; more figures would have been a welcome addition to improve readability as well.

Sanjay Phadke is the Head of Global Platforms and Alliances at Vayana Network. He describes himself as a “tinkerer (almost) and teacher (hopefully)”. He graduated from Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies and Sardar Patel College Of Engineering.

Here are my takeaways from the 190-page book, summarised as well in Table 1. See also my reviews of the related books Prediction Machines; Seeing Digital; A Human's Guide to Machine Intelligence; Machine, Platform, Crowd; and The AI Advantage.

T

Table 1: Fintech transformations (image credit: YourStory)

Evolution of money

The invention of language and money are key contributions to the evolution of society, Sanjay begins. Money acts as a bridge from past to present and future. It is a form of payment and trust, and even a way to acquire more money through financial investment.

Money is a means of exchange and way of comparing the worth of different assets and services. It has deterministic, probabilistic, and even emotional connotations. Evolving from shells to coins and banknotes, currency and its governance are being transformed in the digital era.

While coins did not need numbering, banknotes do. Banknotes today account for only five percent of monies globally, Sanjay explains; the rest is stored in digital or ‘dematerialised’ form.

“Digital money is data,” the author observes, it is a string of characters, and does not derive trust from its physical form any more. New risks arise, of course. “No digital property can be guaranteed to be foolproof from digital theft,” he cautions.

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Key players

Banks, big tech giants, and fintech startups are the three categories of players in today’s financial scenario, Sanjay explains. The industry is tightly regulated, so governments and exchanges play a key role as well.

There are significant differences in the mindset and operations of banks and tech-led firms. Tech DNA is about rapid change, agile development, and learning quickly from mistakes to develop easy-to-use offerings. Bank DNA is about being cautious, paranoid, careful in experimentation, and slow change.

One chapter traces the evolution of the “finscape” in the US, China, and India. The US already had a mature system in place in the pre-digital era, with social security numbers, credit cards, and credit bureaus. “China and India, in contrast, had vastly underdeveloped ecosystems,” Sanjay observes.

The US tech players have now set high expectations for engagement among the younger generation of mobile-connected always-on users around the world. “Silicon Valley is coming,” in the words of Jamie Dimon, CEO of JP Morgan.

The market value of US tech giants like Apple and Amazon is around half of India’s GDP, and they are entering the world of finance along with Google and Facebook as well, Sanjay explains.

Fintech 1.0

Mobile payments and digital-only banks are some forms of Fintech 1.0, Sanjay explains. Alibaba’s Ant Financial set up MyBank as a digital-only bank to offer loans to small businesses in just minutes. It draws on transactional and social media data, fed into AI scoring models.

Neo-banks do not have a banking license but partner with banks to offer banking services. Some existing banks have also rolled out their own digital-only banks, such as Fidor by JPMorgan Chase and Kotak’s 811.

Payment via QR codes has accelerated mobile payments even more. IoT and the emergence of 5G will speed up the momentum further. IoT sensors in vehicles are being used by automobile insurance firms; voice-based assistants and face-recognition technologies are other trends to watch in fintech.

Paypal was one of the first “native-Internet” fintechs. Microsoft is more likely to be a collaborator with banks than a competitor. Softbank is another player to watch, thanks to its investments in fintech startups, the author writes. Fintechs in other countries include Adyen (Netherlands) and Klarna (Sweden).

China has a highly-innovative landscape at scale, as seen in Alibaba’s Alipay, Yue Bao (money-market fund), and Sesame Credit (social credit rating). Ant Financial is the first of the “super fintechs," according to Sanjay. (See also my reviews of the related books Tech Titans of China, China's Mobile Economy, and AliBaba.)

There are new active players in wealth management, consumer loans and insurance. Alibaba also expanded into finance for logistics services, a move copied by other players around the world. Thanks to not having legacy baggage, China has created a “futuristic fintech ecosystem,” Sanjay explains. However, it is siloed into the BAT trio worlds.

India has emerged as a laboratory for global big-tech players, along with local firms like HDFC Bank and Bajaj Finance. Among startups, the book focuses largely on Paytm and not the broader spectrum of players. Paytm’s fortunes were boosted by events like demonetisation, and also received India’s first investment by Warren Buffet.

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Fintech 2.0

The world is awash with money, yet few get loans, the author laments. Cautious banks need collaterals, guarantors, or credit history data based on past records. Unfortunately, the aspirational needs of low-income or poor people cannot be fulfilled in such a system, even though India has 120,000 bank branches – the highest number in the world.

“The poor pay the highest for a loan and gets next to nothing on deposits,” Sanjay observes. Even remittances of foreign labourers are charged relatively high service fees.

Frauds and false identities have plagued the banking system. Digital transformation can help in this regard, but there are also risks regarding theft of data, money and reputation, the author cautions.

India’s larger fintech moves have been cautious and led largely by the government, as seen by inter-connected developments in the B2C and B2B sectors like biometric UID, UPI (Unified Payment Interface), and GST. The author identifies other developments as well, such as DEPA (Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture), PCR (Public Credit Registry), and AA (Account Aggregator).

Aadhaar helped Jio acquire a million customers a day, and reduced activation times. Jio is forging alliances with a range of tech giants, Sanjay observes. Digital technology and finance innovations helped spur the Chinese economy and created a vast pool of SMEs; it is hoped that a similar boom can take place in India as well.

The API architecture is spurring a range of innovations on top of existing digital infrastructure, driven by the talent of entrepreneurs. Hopefully, these combined developments can make access to capital easier and more automated, given the rapid growth of data communications in India.

The success of emerging economies like India depends on democratising access to capital as raw material for the needy, the author emphasises.

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Fintech 3.0

The author charts a range of technologies in the next wave of fintech, clustered as the new ABC: AI, algorithms, autonomous operation; big data, blockchain, bitcoin; and cloud, crypto, cybersecurity. Other trends to watch are quantum computing, which can also pose risks to security via the ability to crack codes.

Continuous feeds of data and powerful algorithms can improve automation and robustness of financial processes at scale. For example, they can improve assessment of ability and willingness to pay by better understanding social psychology (though overcoming bias will be a challenge). Spotting anomalies and outliers can improve fraud detection defences.

Bitcoin regulations vary around the world, but some blockchain features are being implemented. Hybrid systems may emerge in such a context, the author observes.

Platformisation combined with AI is a powerful combination. But countries have adopted varying positions on cloud infrastructure and data sovereignty as well (eg. EU’s GDPR), and trade wars have triggered off new moves in geopolitics.

If all goes well, however, the dream of making financial security and prosperity for all can become a reality when arteries of finance become unclogged, the author sums up. Innovation, agility and scale can be enhanced through financial ecosystem partnerships and progressive regulation.

Edited by Kanishk Singh

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Original Source: yourstory.com

The fintech industry in India is growing rapidly. They have captured a good space with advanced technologies like smart usage of Data Science, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Even large banks and financial institutions have now started to value the importance of fintech.

The rapid growth of India’s fintech space can be attributed to the success of mobile payments and digital lending. Hence, it is not very surprising that traditional banks are also keen on embracing new technologies and partnering with fintech players to improve their service standards.

Many large banks have even set up fintech subsidiaries to internalise fintech competitiveness and export technology capacity to smaller banks. Fintechs are also stepping in to help financial institutions handle the large number of loan applications by enabling digital applications, facilitating data collection or assisting with the underwriting and approval process.

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How fintechs are helping keep consumer liquidity flowing?Mobile payments

Fintech has significantly pervaded the mobile payments landscape. Many fintech players are taking advantage of the rise in the use of smartphones, improvements in digital infrastructure, and a growing interest in online shopping.

The advent of UPI has further eased the process of making payments online. The biggest advantage offered by UPI is its interoperability among multiple banking platforms. This enables customers to enjoy a fast, seamless and reliable payment experience, and pay utility bills. In addition to this, they can send money to their family and friends almost instantaneously.

Digital lending

The process of availing loans from traditional banks is not only time-consuming but also paper heavy. It sometimes takes weeks to just get approvals for the loan. The COVID crisis has further worsened the situation as most of the banks are reluctant to lend in this uncertain scenario. Against this background, digital lending NBFCs have emerged as a saviour for customers.

Fintech companies operating in the digital lending space uses new-age approaches to disburse credit. Instead of relying on traditional financial data, they are now using alternative data to make more accurate and informed credit decisions.

Alternative data for credit scoring can cover employment history, academic background, rental payments, utility bill payments, insurance payments and even social media activities.

Since there is a shortage of credit data on MSME borrowers, fintech lenders leverage alternative data to assess their creditworthiness. This method improves access to credit for MSMEs, who are often declined credit from the formal banking sector.

Not just MSMEs but alternative data also helps salaried professionals and freshers who do not have any credit score. This explains why despite being a fraction of the banking system in size, the digital lending space is growing at a rapid pace owing to the faster and hassle-free process of loan disbursal.

Another main advantage of digital lending is that it allows for digital customer onboarding and credit disbursements, thereby eliminating the need for the customer to be physically present at the lender.

The digital lending space apart from being hassle-free is also helping the new to credit customers and those who have lower income to avail short term personal loan with a few clicks. The fintech companies, through technological means, can promptly evaluate credit risks by using the database containing loan applicants’ background and approve the loan.

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Savings and ProtectionFintech firms are offering platforms to customers to enable them to save, manage their wealth, and make investments. They also help them to choose from a spectrum of financial products across categories such as insurance, savings account and mutual funds.

Some fintech companies are also providing customised financial advice on a range of financial products. Mutual funds, for example, can play a key role in addressing the credit needs of customers.

In March and April this year, around 1.2 million new investors opened demat accounts with the Central Depository Services (CDSL) despite the ongoing nationwide lockdown. This is an indication of more and more retail investors in the country taking to equities and MF route as against the more traditional forms of investments, viz., FD, gold, property, etc.

As many as 122 million Indians have lost their jobs due to the pandemic during the period between March and April, according to the Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy. This means a large portion of the population do not have a steady income source and are suffering from a liquidity crunch. While traditional banks are not much of help in this situation, fintech NFBCs are providing a wide array of products and services to cater to their liquidity requirements.

Be it a personal loan or insurance, fintechs are using their strategic partnerships within the industry to financially empower their customers. The uptick in smartphone use and availability has also prompted many insurance providers to enable customers to complete applications and file claims from their smart phones.

(Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of YourStory.)

Want to make your startup journey smooth? YS Education brings a comprehensive Funding Course, where you also get a chance to pitch your business plan to top investors. Click here to know more.

Original Source: yourstory.com

New Delhi-based microfinance startup SATYA MicroCapital Limited has announced that it has raised Rs 72.5 crore led by Swiss impact investor, BlueOrchard Finance Limited, for the second time since its inception in 2017.

According to a release by the company, the funding will be received through InsuResilience Investment Fund (IIF) and Japan ASEAN Women Empowerment Fund (JAWEF), which is managed by BlueOrchard.

The company said the debt funding will instil a boost in scaling up its operational base while continuing to develop innovative credit offerings and complete end-to-end business processes for its valuable clients.Funding

Source: Shutterstock

Also Read[Funding alert] Electric vehicle startup Simple Energy in talks to raise $1M

SATYA MicroCapital, an NBFC-MFI, offers collateral-free credit to micro enterprises on the basis of a credit assessment platform and a centralised approval system. The company said it has adopted a unique Limited Liability Group (LLG) model for extending loans and ensuring repayment. The model distributes the liability among each group member, which exists only up to 10 installments in bi-weekly collections.

Till date, SATYA claims to have rendered its value-added credit services for generating means of livelihood to over 4.5 lakh clients across 15,000+ villages across the country.

Vivek Tiwari, MD and CEO, SATYA MicroCapital Limited, said,

"The funds will be used for effectively promoting animal husbandry bundled with livestock insurance and in helping a wider section of small aspiring women entrepreneurs to normalise their business. We are thankful to BlueOrchard Finance for showing trust and confidence in SATYA. This will definitely boost the microfinance activities in India.”

The company was also backed by an equity funding of Rs 105 crore in May 2020 led by Japan-based finance institution Gojo & Company Inc. 

Earlier, in September 2019, SATYA MicroCapital raised Rs 50 crore in debt funding by issuing non-convertible debentures (NCDs) to Mauritius-based Aviator Global Investment Fund, in a joint venture with Northern Arc Capital, for three years.

It launched its micro-finance operations from its Bulandshahr branch in Uttar Pradesh. Since then, it has set up 65 branches across 11 states – Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal.

(Edited by Megha Reddy)

Want to make your startup journey smooth? YS Education brings a comprehensive Funding Course, where you also get a chance to pitch your business plan to top investors. Click here to know more.

Original Source: yourstory.com

Heads up! We share savvy shopping and personal finance tips to put extra cash in your wallet. Android Central may receive a commission from The Points Guy Affiliate Network. Please note that the offers mentioned below are subject to change at any time and some may no longer be available.

The American Express® Gold Card wants a seat at your table, whether you’re dining out or buying groceries. With four points per dollar spent at restaurants worldwide and U.S. supermarkets (up to $25,000 a calendar year, then 1x), along with airline and dining credits that almost entirely cover its annual fee, Gold is looking better than ever.

When American Express first rebranded and updated the American Express® Gold Card with new benefits and earning rates in 2018, I was a little disappointed. The 4x bonus categories made this card one of TPG’s best credit cards for dining, but it was limited to purchases in the U.S.

That didn’t do me much good as an expat, and frankly, I was a bit disappointed to see a top-notch travel rewards card that didn’t work well for people traveling internationally. However, Amex has since expanded the dining bonus category to offer 4x points for restaurants worldwide — and although transactions don’t always code properly, I’m finally able to use this card while living abroad in Shanghai.

The Amex Gold card sits squarely between entry-level credit cards that have annual fees hovering around $100 and premium cards that have annual fees starting at $450 or more. The Amex Gold offers up to $220 in combined annual statement credits, which make it easy to justify this card’s $250 annual fee (see rates and fees). Whether your perfect meal is homecooked or at a fancy restaurant, let’s dig in to see what makes this card worth it.

Who is this card for?

If you like to dine out (or order in using delivery services such as Grubhub/Seamless) and you can make good use of American Express Membership Rewards points, this card is a no-brainer, with its valuable bonus categories and up to $220 in annual statement credits. It’s possible to offset the $250 annual fee (see rates and fees) to keep your out-of-pocket cost for this card as low as $30. If you’re a foodie, the 4x bonus points for global restaurants and U.S. supermarkets is a great way to earn bonus points with your American Express card.

The ongoing coronavirus pandemic has helped remind us that food and groceries are among the most essential line items in our budget, and the ones that are the most resilient during a recession. While other cards are offering limited-time bonus points for groceries and food delivery, in the long term, the Amex Gold is one of the best options in both of these categories.

Current welcome offer

The Amex Gold card is currently offering a welcome offer of 35,000 Membership Rewards points after you spend $4,000 in purchases in the first three months of account opening. Based on TPG’s latest valuations, that bonus is worth $700. It’s not the most impressive bonus, considering that we see offers ranging from 50,000 to 100,000 points on other cards.

However, it may be possible to get a 40,000-point welcome bonus via referral links or a 50,000-point welcome bonus through the Amex website or the CardMatch Tool (offer subject to change at any time). It’s definitely worth looking for one of these higher offers, which would be worth $800 or $1,000, respectively, based on TPG’s valuations.

Perks

The Amex Gold offers the following benefits, which go a long way toward offsetting the annual fee of $250 (see rates and fees):

Note that there are no foreign transaction fees with this card (see rates and fees), adding to its value as one of the best rewards credit cards on the market.

Up to $120 annual dining credit.Earn up to $10 in statement credits monthly when you pay with the Gold Card at participating dining partners, including Grubhub, Seamless, The Cheesecake Factory, Ruth’s Chris Steak House, some Shake Shack locations and Boxed. This perk is a monthly statement credit similar to the Uber credit on The Platinum Card® from American Express. Enroll through the Amex website to get this benefit.

Up to $100 annual airline fee credit. Each calendar year, you’ll receive up to $100 in statement credits toward incidental airline fees such as baggage fees and inflight purchases. This works the same as the credit on the Amex Platinum cards. You must designate a qualifying airline, which you can change once a year.

The Hotel Collection. When you book a stay through the Amex Hotel Collection, you’ll earn 2x points on your purchase and enjoy an up to $100 credit toward dining, spa and resort activities at the property. Note that the credit only applies to stays of two consecutive nights or longer.

Baggage insurance. If your luggage is lost, stolen or damaged when you’re traveling with a common carrier and you purchased your ticket with the Amex Gold, you’ll be eligible for up to $1,250 in coverage for carry-on baggage and up to $500 for checked baggage.

Trip delay reimbursement: This is one of the newest perks on the Amex Gold. If you purchase your trip with the card and your travel is delayed more than 12 hours because of a covered reason, you’ll be eligible for a reimbursement of up to $300 for eligible expenses, like meals, lodging and toiletries. You are allowed up to two claims per account every 12 months.

Earning

Despite not having the most impressive welcome bonus, the Amex Gold card really impresses when it comes to its bonus categories and long term earning potential (terms apply):

4x points on dining worldwide and at U.S. supermarkets (U.S. supermarkets capped at $25,000 per calendar year, then 1x)
3x points on flights booked directly from the airline or amextravel.com
1x points on everything else

The 4x on dining is an especially strong earning rate — equal to an 8% return based on our valuations. Even better, Amex has expanded the bonus multiplier to apply to restaurants worldwide, matching the broader dining bonus category on cards such as the Chase Sapphire Reserve.

The 4x points at U.S. supermarkets is also very strong, though it’s capped at the first $25,000 you spend per calendar year (then 1x). Despite the cap, the Amex Gold is one of the best cards to use at U.S. supermarkets. The 3x points on flights purchased directly from the airline or at amextravel.com isn’t bad, either — equal to a 6% return based on TPG’s valuations. Although other premium cards like the Amex Platinum offer higher returns on airfare, many of them also have higher annual fees.

Redeeming

The Membership Rewards points you earn with the Amex Gold can be transferred to 19 airline and three hotel partners. For instance, you can transfer points to Etihad Guest to book business class flights to Europe on American Airlines for 50,000 miles each way (one of many great redemption options available through this unsung program).

Virgin Atlantic also provides plenty of value — like the ability to score round-trip, first-class flights on ANA for as little as 110,000 points or Delta One Suites awards to Asia for only 60,000 miles each way. Another great redemption option is transferring points to Avianca LifeMiles for cheap rates on Star Alliance premium cabin awards. On the hotel side, you can transfer points to Choice Hotels, Hilton and Marriott.

You’ll generally get the most value from your Amex points by transferring them to a travel partner, although that isn’t your only redemption option. You can also use points to buy gift cards, cover charges on your billing statement, shop at Amazon or ride with Uber. You can also use points to book travel directly through Amex, though with the exception of transfer partners, all of these redemption options fall well short of TPG’s valuation of two cents per point.

One year of earning and burning with the Amex Gold

Although the Amex Gold is one of the most valuable cards in my wallet, it’s not the simplest to use. Getting the most value out of this card requires an effort to maximize both the dining and airline annual statement credits, though using the card at restaurants anywhere in the world and U.S. supermarkets is fairly straightforward. Everyday spending only earns 1x points.

If you put in all that work, it’s fair to ask what you get in return, so let’s take a look.

For starters, in your first year will see you earn a welcome bonus worth at least $700, and possibly up to $1,000 if you’re targeted for the 50,000-point offer through CardMatch. That’s a solid haul, and although it’s not the best bonus on the market, it’s good enough for a card that shines long past the first year.

I use Personal Capital to keep track of my finances and make sure I don’t forget about bills on my two dozen different credit cards. I also love that it tells you how much you spend each year in different categories. According to Personal Capital, the year before I moved abroad I spent roughly ~$4,500 in each of two categories: groceries and dining out. (Whenever I’m out to dinner with friends I try to put the bill on my credit card and have them pay me back over Venmo.)

So with $9,000 worth of eligible purchases in the Amex Gold’s 4x categories, I earned about 36,000 bonus Membership Rewards points, worth $720 based on TPG’s valuations. Add in the welcome offer and my total haul was worth $1,420.

Then there are the statement credits. I was able to use all of the monthly dining credits through Grubhub, and I fully utilized the $100 in airline incidentals as well covering checked bag fees when moving stuff home from college. In other words, I paid $250 for my annual fee (see rates and fees) but got $220 of it back in the form of statement credits, dropping my real (net) cost to just $30. That brings my first year total haul to $1,390, which I’m incredibly happy about.

For my last flight before the pandemic hit, I redeemed 90,000 Membership Rewards points for a $16,000 ANA first-class award ticket, further solidifying the outsized value I’m able to get from this card

Which Cards compete with the Amex Gold?

As noted earlier, the Amex Gold’s $250 annual fee (see rates and fees) places it between mid-tier and premium-level cards. However, although there’s no direct comparison on the annual fee front, there are several cards that offer similar bonus categories and perks.

One of the most obvious comparisons is the Chase Sapphire Preferred® Card, with a $95 annual fee and 2x earnings on all dining (and travel) purchases. We value Chase points at 2 cents apiece (same as Amex points), so you’re looking at an effective return of 4% with the Chase Sapphire Preferred versus 8% with the Amex Gold on dining purchases. And while the fee is lower, the Sapphire Preferred doesn’t offer annual statement credits like the Amex Gold does.

On the premium end, the Chase Sapphire Reserve deserves a mention, as it was previously the reigning champ for the highest return on dining spending with a 3x earning rate. But the Amex Gold now tops that card’s 6% return, as does the Citi Prestige® Card with 5x on dining (though the Citi Prestige comes with a high $495 annual fee and awards less-valuable ThankYou points). The Sapphire Reserve also has a $550 annual fee, but, as you’d expect, it offers considerably more perks than the Amex Gold, such as a $300 annual travel credit and a Global Entry/TSA PreCheck application fee credit and Priority Pass lounge access. The information for the Citi Prestige cards has been collected independently by The Points Guy. The card details on this page have not been reviewed or provided by the card issuer.

If you’re enticed by the Gold Card’s 4x bonus at U.S. supermarkets, you could also consider the Amex EveryDay® Preferred Card from American Express. It earns 3x points at U.S. supermarkets on the first $6,000 spent each year (then 1x), and if you make at least 30 purchases in a billing cycle, you’ll get a 50% bonus. That means you’d get a return of 9% with the bonus based on TPG’s valuations. This card also has a much lower $95 annual fee, but note the much lower cap on bonus earnings for U.S. supermarket purchases each year. The information for the Amex EveryDay Preferred has been collected independently by The Points Guy. The card details on this page have not been reviewed or provided by the card issuer.

Bottom line

The Amex Gold isn’t just a pretty card. Its 4x earning rate on dining worldwide and at U.S. supermarkets makes it a strong pick for pretty much all food purchases. The $220 in annual statement credits — between the dining credit and the airline fee credit — add value, and also make the $250 annual fee (see rates and fees) easier to swallow. The welcome bonus doesn’t turn heads, but the American Express Gold Card still earns a spot as one of our best cards and can rack up plenty of points for those with appetites for dining out or dining in.

Apply here for the American Express® Gold Card with a 35,000-point welcome bonus.

For rates and fees of the Amex Gold Card, please click here.

Featured photo by Isabelle Raphael/The Points Guy.

Original Source: androidcentral.com

Find an undesirable Credit Auto Loan in Canada. Leave A reply cancel answer There are many choices to consider, your neighborhood bank, your insurance carrier, bad credit financing solutions, and peer to peer lenders. If you’re a current consumer, your neighborhood bank is the very first stop because it is much more likely that their […]
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