Twice each year, every U.S. state except Hawaii and Arizona transition from daylight saving time (DST) to standard time and back again.1 Yet, the research is quite clear that meddling with time, and therefore sleep, has negative effects on your health.
DST was first introduced in 1918 when it was called “fast time.”2 The law was signed by the president to support the war effort. It followed a similar initiative in Germany that went into effect in 1916.3 After the war ended, the law was repealed and then reinstated during World War II.4 Three weeks after World War II ended, the law was again repealed.
By 1963, Time magazine called the resulting state of confusion a “chaos of clocks.”5 Nearly 20 years after the end of World War II, DST was restored under the Uniform Time Act.6 This standardized when DST would begin and end, and gave states the option to stay on standard time year-round.
In 1973, Congress determined DST should be observed all year, but this was again changed in 1974 when the clocks were moved forward in the spring and fell back an hour in the fall.7 In 1986 the time officially changed at 2 a.m. on the first Sunday in April and the last Sunday in October.
The date in the fall changed in 2005 to the first Sunday in November in response to lobbying from the golf, barbecue and candy companies, which wanted more daylight during the evening hours to accommodate Halloween night and the traditional passing of sugar treats.8 The current dates and times have remained unchanged since 2007.
Long-Term Health Effects of Daylight Saving Time
Part of the risk posed by DST is that it can shrink the average amount of sleep an adult gets by up to 20 minutes during transitions.9 Chronic sleep disruption contributes to a rising number of people who are obese.10 Dr. Chris Winter, author of “The Sleep Solution: Why Your Sleep Is Broken and How to Fix It,” explains how sleep is an integral part of your eating patterns by affecting the hormones ghrelin and leptin:11
“Appetite in general is often not the body requesting food; it’s the body anticipating food. When your body knows you eat lunch around 12:30 p.m. or so every day, it anticipates and prepares for the meal.
These two hormones are intimately associated with sleep, which is part of why when we’re not sleeping well, we tend to overeat. It’s a tight hormonal balance and daylight-saving shifts can absolutely throw it off.”
A lack of sleep may also raise the risk you can experience a fatal accident. Dr. Beth Ann Malow from Vanderbilt University Medical Center and colleagues published a commentary reviewing large epidemiological studies that document these negative health effects.12 Malow commented on their findings:13
“People think the one-hour transition is no big deal, that they can get over this in a day, but what they don’t realize is their biological clock is out of sync. It’s not one hour twice a year. It’s a misalignment of our biologic clocks for eight months of the year.
When we talk about DST and the relationship to light, we are talking about profound impacts on the biological clock, which is a structure rooted in the brain. It impacts brain functions such as energy levels and alertness.”
Another team of researchers published an analysis of the effect daylight saving time has on a spectrum of diseases.14 They gathered data using a population-based, cross-sectional analysis from an insurance claim data set of over 129 million patients in the U.S. and Sweden.
They evaluated the effect shifting time by one hour twice each year had on hundreds of age- and sex-specific health conditions. Their data confirmed past research results that heart attacks,15 accidents,16 mental health concerns17 and immune-related diseases18 increase during the time shift.
The analysis also revealed several surprises. For instance, it showed an increase in substance abuse in men ages 41 to 60 near DST.19 They also found immune-related disorders that had not been associated in the past with daylight saving time occur more often in the first week following the spring DST shift.
The analyses revealed a higher number of complications during pregnancy and childbirth, and increases in renal failure.20
“To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report the DST-related RRs [relative risk] of disorders involving the digestive system (such as noninfective enteritis and colitis), which rose three percent after the spring DST shift in females over 60 and six percent in males under ten.”
Your Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Is Involved
Your body runs on an internal clock known as your circadian rhythm. When you mess up this internal clock, your cells are exposed to an unusual amount of stress. Many of the health conditions attributed to the biannual time change are because these internal clocks are not easily reprogrammed and are synchronized to a 24-hour cycle of light and dark.21
Another system in the body responsible for regulating your internal clock is located in the hypothalamus and called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).22 It functions through hormonal and chemical signals to synchronize your internal clock, which in turn regulates your sleep-wake cycle and has an effect on the regulation of other physiological activities.
These activities include your core body temperature, neuroendocrine function, memory and psychomotor activity.23 The SCN is made up of multiple circadian oscillator neurons that function a little like a pacemaker.
Although your body uses several environmental cues to regulate your circadian rhythm, the most important is your exposure to light. Your SCN produces an electrical output using a specific rhythm in response to light.24 Aging and sleep deprivation will have a negative effect on the electrical amplitude of your SCN, which is essential for optimal behavioral and physiological mechanisms.
There’s growing evidence suggesting your SCN contributes to cognitive performance and overall health. When there’s a negative impact on this 24-hour rhythm it increases your risk for depression, sleep disorders, neurodegenerative disease and cancer.25
Since your SCN responds to light, disruption in light exposure can trigger negative health effects. As the Earth rotates, your body clock adjusts to light changes, including seasonal change.26
However, the sudden adjustments that come with time changes in the spring and fall are what researchers believe triggers the increased incidence of heart attack, stroke, traffic accidents and a higher number of injuries.
Fred Turek from Northwestern University directs the Center for Sleep and Circadian Biology and says this about a one-hour time change twice a year: “You might not think that a one-hour change is a lot. But it turns out that the master clock in our brain is pretty hard-wired.”27
Data Don’t Support Daylight Saving Time
One of the reasons given for keeping DST, despite strong evidence it has negative health effects, is the potential it may help save energy. However, as this short video demonstrates, while it may have originally reduced energy use in the early 1900s, the cost difference for a single-family in modern times is just $4 each year.
A second argument is that it offers people more sunlight after work to enjoy recreational activities. Theoretically, this may lead to more physical activity and better health. However, a study published in 2014,28 which gathered data from people living in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico and Arizona, found it did not make a difference in the amount of time outdoors, but had an effect on the types of activities.
They concluded, “… the potential for DST to serve as a broad-based intervention that encourages greater sports/recreation participation is not supported by this analysis.”
Financial losses are also felt in the stock market. An analysis published in the American Economic Review revealed each time the clocks changed there was an impact on the function of the financial markets.29 The scientists believe desynchronized sleep reasonably explained the effect on the market that was different from other Mondays on the two weekends when the time changes.
When a potential $4 savings in energy is compared against the loss of finances, productivity and rising health care costs from injuries and illness, it’s apparent moving the clocks in the spring and the fall is not an effective way of managing human and environmental resources.
Experts also disagree about how long it takes your body to recover from the time change. Till Roenneberg is a German chronobiologist who says his studies demonstrate your body’s circadian clock never adjusts during DST. In an interview with a reporter from National Geographic, he said:30
“The consequence of that is that the majority of the population has drastically decreased productivity, decreased quality of life, increasing susceptibility to illness, and is just plain tired. Light doesn’t do the same things to the body in the morning and the evening. More light in the morning would advance the body clock, and that would be good. But more light in the evening would even further delay the body clock.”
Europe Is Ditching DST in 2021
Many Europeans will soon not have to struggle with a biannual time change. March 26, 2019, the European Parliament voted to end DST in 2021.31 The Guardian reported that member states will be allowed to “choose whether to remain on ‘permanent summer’ or ‘permanent winter’ time under the draft directive.”32
Europeans call DST “summertime” and standard time is “wintertime.” This means countries that opted to remain permanently on summertime will make their final adjustments in March 2021. Countries that decide to remain on permanent wintertime will change their clocks for the last time in October 2021.
As more published data establish the negative effects on health, finances and productivity, the tide is beginning to turn in the U.S. with state bills introduced each year that propose changes to DST.33
Tips to Transition When the Clock ‘Falls Back’
Until DST is either repealed or remains in place year-round, you’ll have to make changes to your sleep schedule twice a year. In this short video I share several strategies to help you fall asleep and to improve the quality of your sleep.
Small shifts in your circadian timing are happening all year since many ignore their body’s internal clock, either by necessity to accommodate their work schedule or by choice.
Pushing the limit of your body clock by getting up early and staying up late may not be worth it when it comes to your long-term health. University of Alabama associate professor Martin Young has suggested several natural strategies to help resync your body after a time change, including:34
Wake up 30 minutes earlier on Saturday and Sunday, to minimize the impact of getting up earlier on Monday morning
Go outside in the sunlight in the early morning
Exercise in the mornings over the weekend, in keeping with your overall level of health and fitness
Consider setting your clock ahead on Friday evening, allowing an extra day to adjust over the weekend
I would also add to these recommendations the suggestions from the video above and the following:
Practice good sleep hygiene, including sleeping in complete darkness, checking your bedroom for electromagnetic fields and keeping your bedroom temperature cool enough for optimal sleep. For a full report about how to maximize the quality of your sleep, see “Sleep — Why You Need It and 50 Ways to Improve It.”
Optimize your vitamin D level to support your immune function, which is especially important during cold and flu season.
Manage your stress with whatever stress-busting techniques work for you. Consider using yoga, exercise, meditation or Emotional Freedom Techniques.
Eat dinner earlier and pay attention to your diet, making sure you are consuming plenty of fresh, whole foods, preferably organic, and minimal amounts of processed foods and fast foods; keep your sugar consumption low, especially fructose. I invite you to review our optimized nutrition plan to help you develop an eating plan that supports your overall health.
Consider encouraging your legislature to change DST by signing a petition to your congresspersons or getting involved in your state to pass a resolution.
Original Source: articles.mercola.com
Fintech platform MobiKwik on Tuesday said it has promoted Chandan Joshi as the co-founder and CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of the company's payments business.
Joshi has been part of the MobiKwik leadership team for the last 2.5 years as senior vice president, payments, a statement said.
"This is the first time the company has bestowed the co-founder title on anyone outside the original founding team. The company has kickstarted its IPO 2022 campaign with this major appointment," it added.
Previously, Joshi had founded Paketts, a last-mile logistics service company, and exited the business after Paketts was acquired by Nuvo Logistics (Peppertap) in 2017. Prior to being an entrepreneur, Chandan was a financial trader in global financial markets with Credit Suisse in London and Hong Kong.
MobiKwik co-founder and CEO, Bipin Preet Singh, said:
"Chandan has demonstrated all the right traits that we look for in a business leader – he leads from the front, is invested in his teams, is tenacious in driving business results and in closing large strategic deals. He has been a strong growth driver for MobiKwik and we want him to partner with us as a co-founder in the overall build-out of the company."
In its recently published financial year 2020 annual report, the company had reported net revenue growth of 133 percent year-on-year to Rs 379 crore, and cash EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization) loss reduction of 91 percent y-o-y to Rs 8.5 crore.
"My journey with MobiKwik so far has been very fulfilling – I joined in the aftermath of demonetisation and my first assignment was organising the retail payments business, then to run ecommerce payments and finally to grow all of the Payments business…I am confident that together we will be able to profitably grow MobiKwik and take the company public," Joshi said.
OYO, Bira 91, Mobikwik — 10 Delhi-NCR startups that bagged funding during the COVID-19 lockdown
As CEO of the Payments business, Joshi will take on complete ownership of the company's flagship Payments Business which drives 75 percent of the revenues. While he was already driving the business (Sales, Marketing, Product, Engineering) in his existing role, all functions in the payments business unit will now report into him, the statement said.
MobiKwik has two business verticals – payments and fintech (includes credit and insurance).
Bipin Preet Singh is the CEO of the overall business.
Edited by Megha Reddy
Want to make your startup journey smooth? YS Education brings a comprehensive Funding Course, where you also get a chance to pitch your business plan to top investors. Click here to know more.
Original Source: yourstory.com
Ramin Talaie/Corbis/Getty Images
Goldman Sachs said in a note Thursday the S&P 500 can hit 3,600 if markets price in the bank’s “comparatively more optimistic US GDP forecast.”
The bank’s strategists Dominic Wilson and Vickie Chang say if the economy contracts by only by 5% in 2020, and grows by 6.2% next year, then real yields will rise sharply to levels of “cyclical optimism” in June.
The US bank said in a note last week banks are underpricing a scenario that a vaccine will be developed by year-end and widely distributed by the first quarter of 2021.
Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.
The S&P 500 could hit 3,600 if markets price in a “comparatively more optimistic US GDP forecast,” Goldman Sachs said this week. That is almost 7% above where the index is currently trading.
In a note published Thursday, strategists Dominic Wilson and Vickie Chang said if the consensus forecast moves to its “comparatively more optimistic” forecast of a 5% contraction in 2020 and 6.2% growth next year, then real yields will rise sharply back to levels that prevailed at the peak of cyclical optimism back in June. See the rest of the story at Business Insider
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A White House report claims that roughly 81% of coronavirus job losses are likely temporary‘We’re prepared to put more money on the table’: Mnuchin says Trump administration is open to resume talks on coronavirus stimulusTrump’s $400 weekly boost to unemployment insurance won’t increase benefits for jobless Americans anytime soon
Original Source: feedproxy.google.com
WhatsApp will work with partners like banks and financial institutions in India to make it easier for people to access products such as insurance, microcredit, and pension, its India Head Abhijit Bose said on Wednesday.
The company will also support multiple pilots to test potential solutions to solve problems related to distribution of financial products, Bose said at the Global Fintech Fest.Also ReadOver 15M in India use WhatsApp Business app every month
The Facebook-owned company has been working for more than a year with banking partners to see how it can supplement their digital presence and accelerate the pace of financial access across segments and geographies in the country, Bose said.
"We now want to open up with more banks…over this coming year to help simplify and expand banking services, especially to the rural and lower income segments…we also aim to expand our experiments with partners for other products that the RBI highlighted as basic financial services, starting with micro pensions and insurance," he added.
Bose said the collective aim over the next two to three years is to be able to help low wage workers in the unorganised informal economy to easily access three products – insurance, microcredit, and pension.
WhatsApp had started testing its payments service – WhatsApp Pay – in India in 2018. The UPI-based service, which allows users to utilise the messaging platform to send and receive money, competes against SoftBank-backed Paytm, Flipkart's PhonePe, and Google Pay in India.
While a full-scale national rollout is yet to happen for WhatsApp Pay in India over regulatory issues, the company had launched WhatsApp Pay in Brazil last month.
Bose noted that the fintech innovation happening in India is years ahead of other countries, including the US.
He said, over the next year and a half, WhatsApp will be supporting multiple pilots to test potential solutions to solve problems related to distribution of financial products.
"These pilots will be done jointly with our partners as well as innovative tech partners in each vertical. Each pilot will start with a small experiment to test our hypotheses and based on the results, we will co-invest and scale the ones that show promise," he informed.
Bose emphasised that even a small conversion of the demand will translate into significant infusion of savings into the financial system, and said the company's ultimate goal is for every Indian to have access and affordable micropension, and insurance services.
He highlighted that the core principles of WhatsApp – simplicity, reliability, privacy, and security – are the reasons that people trust and are comfortable with the platform, and these tenets are "critical" when one talks about adoption of new digital services, especially financial services.
With over 400 million users, India is currently among the biggest markets for WhatsApp.
(Edited by Megha Reddy)
Want to make your startup journey smooth? YS Education brings a comprehensive Funding Course, where you also get a chance to pitch your business plan to top investors. Click here to know more.
Original Source: yourstory.com
The mortgage industry (and interest rates) have a somewhat complicated relationship with the rest of the overall economy. Generally speaking, when the economy is doing very well, the Federal Reserve will start raising interest rates. This can help to try and ward off inflation which is not great for the economy. Conversely, when overall economic conditions are poor, the Federal Reserve will LOWER the interest rates, in an attempt to spur economic growth. Since the interest rates on most mortgage products are (directly or indirectly) tied to the overall Federal Reserve interest rate, these actions have a pretty significant impact on mortgage interest rates.
Mortgage rates can fluctuate daily or even hourly, so it’s good to have a basic idea of what you want to do and what might make you want to refinance. With mortgage rates at historic lows, let’s take a look at what that means and whether you should refinance while rates are low.
Mortgage rates are at historic lows
The mortgage market is a fairly complicated market with several different types of mortgages available. So when you hear that mortgage rates are at “historic lows”, it’s important to understand what type of mortgage is being talked about. Usually, the 30-year fixed mortgage is the loan product that is considered the “standard” mortgage. So if you hear about rates “dropping”, you’re usually hearing about the 30-year fixed. It is true that usually (but not always!) rates for different types of products rise and fall together.
(SEE ALSO: What is a “Good” interest rate?)
It was not uncommon in the 1970s or 1980s to see mortgage rates with double-digit interest rates. Since that time, interest rates have generally steadily dropped, to a low around 3.5% in 2012. Mortgage rates fluctuated in the 3-4% range for the next several years before rising to around 4.5% in 2018 and 2019.
The recent coronavirus pandemic has affected the housing market and sent rates on the 30-year fixed mortgage down under 3.5%, around the lowest those rates have ever been.
Should you refinance to a 30-year mortgage?
As the name implies, a 30-year fixed mortgage will lock in your interest rate for the duration of your loan. You’ll have 360 monthly payments, all of the same amount. The exact amount you pay will depend on the amount of your loan, the duration and the interest rate. You can use our Loan Repayment calculator to find out the exact amount of your monthly payment. Keep in mind that that monthly payment amount will not include your property taxes or home insurance. Your lender may require that you set up an escrow account, or else you’ll need to make sure to budget for those expenses on top of your monthly mortgage payment.
The 30-year fixed mortgage will usually give you your lowest monthly payment. In fact, even if you currently have a 30 year fixed mortgage, you will likely save on your monthly payment by refinancing now. That is because of 2 reasons – the rates are likely lower than when you first got your mortgage and because you’ve paid down your mortgage balance so the amount you’re refinancing is less.
Should you refinance to a 15 or 20-year mortgage?
Another option to consider when refinancing is to refinance to a 15 or 20-year mortgage. A mortgage with a shorter term (like 15 or 20 years) will usually have a lower interest rate than the 30-year fixed mortgage. However, because the shorter term means there are fewer payments, your payment may still go up.
If you’re currently on a 30-year mortgage, you’ll likely (but not always) find that the monthly payments on a 15 or 20-year mortgage will be higher. The good news is that your mortgage will be paid off 10 or 15 years sooner! Overall you’ll pay quite a bit less in interest.
An example of refinancing to a shorter-term mortgage
To illustrate the types of choices you have with refinance, let’s look at an example. Our fictional homeowner bought her house 5 years ago with a mortgage of $250,000, and took out a 30 year fixed mortgage. Her monthly principal and interest payments have been $1,267 per month, and after 60 payments, her mortgage balance is now $228,305.36 with 25 years remaining.
She’s looking to refinance with today’s low rates. We’ll say that her closing costs will make her new loan payoff amount $230,000. Again using our Loan Repayment Calculator, here are some options she could consider:
A 30 year fixed loan at 3.5% – monthly payments would be $1,033.
A 20 year fixed loan at 3% – monthly payments would be $1,276.
A 15 year fixed loan at 3% – monthly payments would be $1,588.
You can see that refinancing to another 30-year mortgage would drop her payments by $234 each month. That comes at a cost of adding 30 more years to the total time it takes to repay. With a 20 year loan, her payments only go up $9 per month but she shaves 5 years and tens of thousands of dollars of interest over the course of the loan. A 15-year loan would pay even less interest but at a cost of increasing the mortgage payment by $321 each month.
Of course, every situation is different but hopefully, this can serve as a guideline to help you as you make your own decisions about refinancing.
The case against refinancing
Even though mortgage rates are at historic lows, refinancing is not right for everyone. Here are a few cases where it might not make sense to refinance, even if today’s interest rates are lower than the rate on your current mortgage:
You’re not sure if you’ll be in your home long term. Refinancing does come with some upfront costs, and if you won’t be in your home long enough to pay them back, it might not make sense
Your credit score or financial situation has taken a recent hit
You want to take advantage of some of your home’s equity with a home equity line of credit.
You don’t have enough money to pay the upfront closing and other costs associated with a refinance. If this is the case, see if it might make sense to roll those costs into your new loan.
For even more information about the pros and cons of refinancing, check out our list of 8 refinancing tips
The post Should You Refinance Your Mortgage While Rates Are Low? appeared first on MintLife Blog.
Original Source: blog.mint.com